The aim of this page is to  provide further evidence in support of some of the assertions I make in the text. These take two forms: 
 1. Links to books, original communications, governmental and non-governmental agencies
2. Further particulars: Tables and other evidence too bulky to include in the main text                       
I would like this page, in time to include a forum for discussion. I welcome comments and suggestions. Contact me at mokewebster@outlook.com



Dawkins M.S. (1980) Animal Suffering: The Science of Animal Welfare. Chapman and Hall, London.

McFarland D (1989) Problems of Animal Behaviour. Longman, Harlow. 

Russel W.M.S. & BIrch R.L. 1959 The principles of humane experimental technique. Methuen & Co. London

Webster John (1994) Animal Welfare: A cool eye towards Eden. Oxford, Blackwell Science

Webster John (2011) Animal Welfare: LImping towards Eden. Oxford, Blackwell Science 

Webster John (2013) Animal Husbandry Regained: The place of farm animals in sustainable agriculture. Oxford, Routledge
Webster John (2022). Animal Welfare: Understanding Sentient Minds and why it matters. UFAW, Wiley Blackwell

Webster John & Margerison Jean 2022 Management and Welfare of Farm Animals Sixth edition, UFAW, Wiley Blackwell.

Legislation and Government Publications

Animals (Scientific Procedures Act) 1986 

Animal Welfare Act 2006

Farm Animal Welfare Council 1993. Second report on priorities for research and development, MAFF, Tolworth.

Protection of Animals Act 1911

Original communications

Brainard M.S. & Doupre A.J. 2002. What songbirds teach us about learning. Nature 417, 351-358

Mason G, McFarland D, & Garner J (1998) A demanding task: Using economic techniques to assess animal priorities. Animal Behaviour 55, 1070-1075 

Mellor D.J. 2016 Updating animal welfare thinking: Moving beyond the Five Freedoms to 'A life worth living'. Animals 6(3) 21

Mepham B. 1966. Ethical analysis of food technologies: an evaluative framework. In Food Ethics (ed.B.Mepham) Routledge.

Nicol C.J.and Pope, S.j.1996. The maternal behaviour of birds is sensitive to perceived chick error. Animal Behaviour 52, 767-774.

Rotolo G.C., Rydberg T and Lieblein G 2007. Emergy evaluation of grazing cattle in Argentina's pampasAgriculyure, Ecoosystems and  Environment, 119, 383-395. 

Webster A.J.F. 2009 The Virtuous Bicycle: A delivery vehicle for improved farm animal welfare.Animal Welfare 18, 141-147.

Webster John 2020 Understanding the Dairy Cow, third edition. Wiley Blackwell

Whay H.R., Main, D.C.J. et. al. 2007. Assessment of the behaviour and welfare of laying hens on free-range units. Veterinary Record 161, 119-128


Welfare Organisations

Compassion in World Farming  (CIWF)

 Farm Animal Welfare Committee, (FAWC, formerly Farm Animal Welfare Council)

Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW)




Feed conversion in animal production systems

                                                                               Webster 2020

Comparison of conversion of Metabolizable Energy (ME)  and Protein from competitive and complementary systems to  ME and protein for human consumption.

Emergy analysis

Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) = Food/NR (imported food, fuel, labout                     high = good

hiEnvironmental load ration (ELR) = (NR +F)/R   high = bad

Sustainability  Index (ESY) =EYR/ELR  high = good

Emergy indices

Energy yield ratio (EYR)= Food/NR =imported food, fuel, labour :     HIgh = good

Enironmental load ratio (ELR)=(NR+F)/R    Low = good

Sutainability Index (ESI=EYR/ELR         High = good          

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